Our study suggests that facial hygiene and environmental sanitation are priority trachoma-control interventions in southern Sudan.
Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) was considered more severe than trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF).
A total of 7,418 children were included in the analysis.
Risk factors and prevalences were unclean face, 52.3%; face washed less than twice daily, 50.8%; water collection 30 minutes, 38.1%; absence of latrines, 95.4%; garbage disposal within 20 m, 74.4%; cattle ownership, 69.2%; and flies, 83.3%.
After adjusting for age and sex, unclean face, less frequent face washing, cattle ownership, and increasing fly density were found to be independently associated with severity of active trachoma.
Thus, to tailor delivery of appropriate interventions to address the facial hygiene and environmental sanitation (the “F” and “E” components of the SAFE strategy) for particular populations, risk factors for trachoma must be understood.
Trachoma occurs in stages with each grade corresponding to increasing disease severity.In the simplified grading scheme, trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) is defined as five or more follicles of 0.5 mm or greater on the tarsal conjunctiva, and trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is defined as pronounced thickening of the tarsal conjunctiva and inflammation that obscures 50% of the underlying blood vessels.We aimed to investigate prevalence of potential risk factors, and associations between risk factors and active trachoma in southern Sudan.Surveys were undertaken in ten sites and children aged 1–9 years examined for trachoma.Risk factors were assessed through interviews and observations.Using ordinal logistic regression, associations between severity of active trachoma and risk factors were explored.