On December 10, 1983, Argentina returned to democracy after almost eight years of authoritarian rule, and since then has had free and fair elections.
Governors, Municipal Mayors, and local authorities are elected according to their provincial or municipal constitutions.
Deputies are still elected by closed lists, which means that citizens are not allowed to change the order of candidates or to cross out names on the list.
Moreover, most parties use closed primaries to select and order their lists.
The presidential term was reduced from six to four years, and a second round of voting will be required if no candidate receives at least 45 per cent of the vote in the first round or if the winner has 40 per cent of the vote but a margin of victory over the second-place candidate of less than 10 percent.
However, the reform did not touch some of the prominent features of Argentinean electoral system - strong federalism, proportional representation (PR), see List PR, closed-list ballots, see Open, Closed and Free Lists, and a threshold of three per cent of the electoral register in each district.
Under the new constitution the president, who is chief of state and head of government, is directly elected for a four-year term by universal adult suffrage.The National Congress (Congreso de la nación) has two chambers.The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 257 members elected for a four-year term by proportional representation, with half of the seats renewed every two years. Prior to the reform, senators were indirectly elected for a nine-year term by the provincial legislatures.Now the members of the Senate are elected in 25 three-seat electoral districts (24 provinces and the city of Buenos Aires) for a six-year term, with one-third renewed every two years.Each of the 25 electoral districts chooses three senators directly.Two seats are awarded to the most-voted party and one to the second-largest party.